- The Role of Local Governments in the Governance of Ground-mounted Photovoltaics
- Chia-Ling Shen, Hsing-Sheng Tai
- 氣候與能源治理長久以國家為治理主體，卻面對內部結構與社會接受度等障礙，促使先驅區域 或國家以多層級治理模式因應，其中地方政府扮演關鍵角色。在臺灣，再生能源治理也面臨類似困 境，然我國現行法制與體制，仍忽略地方政府的治理角色，中央與地方的權責分工不足。本研究建 議應階段性強化地方政府的治理角色，並提出幾點建議：一、修訂《地方制度法》授予地方政府適 度的再生能源自治權，以及修訂相關專法，對中央與地方治理權責進行系統性調整。二、修法要求 地方政府再生能源目標之導入與規劃義務，但保有自主貢獻彈性。三、透過國土計畫體系，促使地 方政府進行能源空間規劃以盤點適當發展區位，並據此協商整合跨部門之政策與目標。四、在建立 一致與連貫的審查標準下，授予地方政府大部分的審查(核)權力。五、加速獨立監管機關設立，並 進行跨層級與跨部門協商，確認監管範疇與原則，以及建立監管制度與程序後，由地方配合相關監 管工作。六、擴大地方參與惠益分配範疇與決策過程，促進共同利益整合與共享；七、由地方政府 擔負地方公眾與利害關係人的溝通協調責任。最後，本文也建議應加強地方政府量能，以支持上述 目標之達成。
- Climate-change mitigation measures and matters of energy policy that originate in multilateral and international agreements are typically administered at the level of national governments. However, when it comes to the implementation of such projects and policies, domestic factors such as internal administrative structures and social attitudes are often crucial in determining outcomes. Therefore, pioneering nations or regions often adopt multi-level governance models in which local governments play a key role. In Taiwan, the governance of renewable energy is characterizing by similar circumstances, and existing regulatory and institutions frameworks do not provide enough space for local governments to play a role in governance. In addition, the responsibilities of central and local governments, respectively, are insufficiently specified and differentiated. This study suggests that the governance role of local governments should be strengthened in stages, and puts forward several suggestions. This includes: 1) the Local Government Act should be amended, and local governments should be granted autonomy in the governance of renewable energy. Furthermore, related special laws should be amended to facilitate appropriate adjustments and separate the responsibilities of central and local governments. 2) Amendments to the law that would strengthen the decision-making power of local governments concerning renewable energy. 3) By means of a national spatial plan, local governments would be required to produce a spatial plan for energy infrastructure and create inventories listing appropriate development zones. On the basis of negotiation, cross-sectional policies and targets should be integrated. 4) Consistent and coherent verification standards should be established, and local governments should be granted primary verification authority. 5) The central government should accelerate the establishment of independent supervision organizations and carry on cross-level and -department negotiation. After making certain the scopes and principles of the supervision as well as establishing the supervision institutions and procedures, the local governments should coordinate with the central government for related supervising tasks. 6) Local participation in the policy-making process regarding the distribution of benefits should be increased, and integration and sharing of multiple benefits should be enhanced. 7) Local governments should be responsible for local communication and the negotiation involving the public and other stakeholders. Finally, the findings of this study suggest that both capacity and staffing of local governments should be increased to support the realization of the abovementioned suggestions.
- Renewable energy, Governance, Local government, Ground-mounted photovoltaics.